BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.

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Mendelssohn’s explicit introduction of the concept of play here, finally, may be just as influential for the development of Alexancer aesthetics as is his insistence that the faculty of approval does not lead to actual knowledge or actual desire.


Ruchi Mishra rated it it was ok Sep 25, So let us now turn to the innovations of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten and alxeander disciple and ally, Georg Friedrich Meier. Of course Gottsched’s rider that the fable must contain a hidden moral truth means that it must also be consistent with the real rules of moral perfection, and indeed that the point of poetic indulgence in fable or fiction is precisely to make a moral baumgraten alive and forceful to us by showing that it holds even in a possible world that differs from the actual world in certain of its facts but not in its principles.

Lessing does not appeal to any philosophical theory to back up this insistence. It requires a thousand preparations, a thousand circumstances, much knowledge, conviction, experiences, examples and encouragement….

In the first conversation he argued that the contemplation of natural beauty has a calming and moderating influence on our passions. While the meanings of words often change as a result of cultural developments, Baumgarten’s reappraisal of aesthetics is often seen as a key moment in the development of aesthetic philosophy. Sulzer’s combination of the aesthetics of truth and play would in turn prepare the way for Kant, while Herder’s final work, more than twenty years after he completed his main work in aesthetics, would be a critique of Kant’s aesthetics.

What we cognize as the best in this comparison works on our faculty of desire and stimulates it, where it finds no resistance, to activity. InLessing had his great success with the bourgeois tragedy Miss Sara Sampsonwhich initiated a new direction in the German theater.

Like Herder, Sulzer recognizes that the variety of human tastes in both form and more substantial matters of morality means that different individuals and peoples will alexabder both different external forms beautiful and different characters good, thus leading to differences in their ideals of beauty.

The contrast between perfection alexamder imperfection in the content of a representation and the enjoyable activity of the alexanderr in representing that content is the heart of Mendelssohn’s theory, so we can interrupt our catalogue of all four of the axes of perfection that he recognizes for some comments on this contrast.


The second step argues that just as Lessing’s division baumgarfen the arts into painting and poetry is incomplete, the distinction between space and time on which the former division is based is also incomplete.

It must therefore necessarily be gratified with its own strength. In the latter essay, Mendelssohn makes a number of points that will become central to the subsequent German discussion of the sublime, especially in Kant.

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He had also become friends with the critic and playwright Gotthold Ephraim Lessing alexandeg the writer and publisher Friedrich Nicolai, and begun an active publishing baumgaften.

Rather, his convictions that the best art reveals the truth about its world and that there are deep commonalities in human emotional responses to such truths allow him to defend the ideal of a standard of or paradigm for taste after all.

Notify me of new posts via email. The faculty of approval, however, aims just for the pleasing activity of the other two faculties without their usual results. The premise of Herder’s aestheica is that aesthetic response is not the disinterested reaction of a special internal sense to purely formal properties of objects, but is really the heightened response of various of our senses to their appropriate objects.

Baumgarten appropriated the word aestheticswhich had always meant “sensation”, to mean taste or “sense” of beauty. Rhapsody ; Philosophical Writingsp. For since a painting is nothing other than a representation of a given object on a tablet or flat aethetica, everything in it is harmonious if nothing can be discerned in it that one does not also perceive in the thing itself. What is particularly striking is that he then uses what we might call this quantitative conception of the aim of poetry, that it arouse more and denser rather than fewer and more clearly separated baumgarren, as the basis for an argument that poetry should be emotionally affecting.

Extracts from various Authors inremained unpublished during Herder’s lifetime.

And no doubt Wolff hardly thought it necessary to spell out the moral benefits of such a recognition. Pangs piercing every muscle, every labouring nerve; pangs which we almost feel ourselves, while we consider—not the face, nor the most expressive parts—only the belly contracted by excruciating pains: But this work says nothing about in what way the new discipline might be a general science of perception, and analyzes only the nature of poetry and our experience of it.

We contemplate the beauty of nature and of art, without the least arousal of desire, with gratification and satisfaction. In Gottsched’s views, judgments of taste, even if they are not made on the basis of explicit knowledge of objective rules about the perfection of things, track those objective rules when they are in fact correct. It is this liveliness rather than probative clarity which is the basis of aesthetic experience.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten | German philosopher |

A world of external things ranged alongside one another is revealed in an instant. In this alexnder we will consider Herder’s early work in aesthetics, while discussion of his later work will be reserved for section 9.


You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. But the latter is as much a part of his thought as the former. The fourth Grove is cast as a critique of Riedel’s Theory of the Fine Sciences and Artsas earlier noted, but also continues the debate with Lessing.

In so doing, he gave the word a different significance, thereby inventing its modern usage. Leibniz then says that sensory perception is clear but indistinct or confused knowledge, and illustrates his general thesis about sense perception with a remark about the perception and judgment of art: Mendelssohn answers this question this by saying that. Influences LeibnizAethetica. Thus, in admiring the perfection of art we are performing part of our larger function in the world, namely admiring the perfection of God.

So how does he fit all of these ideas together into his own distinctive theory? InLeo Tolstoyin his What is Art?

Just alexaander moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Francisco Cannalonga rated it liked it May 03, Winckelmann took it to be a classical Greek work. A science of aesthetics would be, for Baumgarten, a deduction of the rules or principles of artistic or natural beauty from individual “taste”.

An Essay on the Limits of Painting alexancer Poetryalthough not published untilwas clearly begun and largely written before the appearance of Winckelmann’s History in Now if God would attain this aim, he also had to arrange the world in such a way that a rational being could extract from the contemplation of it grounds that would allow him to infer with certainty the properties of God and what can be known about him.

The traditional idea that art is a special vehicle for the expression of important truths is the basis for the work of the philosopher who established the framework for German thought for much of the 18 th century, namely, Christian Wolff — In relation to the thinking subject, the soul, on the other hand, perceiving and cognizing the features as well as testifying to enjoying them or not constitutes something actual [ Sachliches ] that is posited in the soul, an affirmative determination of the baumgatten.

Herder alexandeer thus no straightforward historicist or cultural relativist. Aesthetics is defined-and guaranteed to be aestheetica finite enterprise-by virtue of the immanent aim of its internal object. This is a view that was barely hinted at by Wolff, and not at all in his discussion of imitation as the perfection of mimetic arts, but only in his discussion of mixed arts like architecture, where he took into account the appearance alexanddr well as the function of structural elements.